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What is the history of gender testing?
Helen Stephens (left) and Stella Walsh
German officials examined Helen Stephens (left) before the Games and declared her female; an autopsy of Stella Walsh 40 years later revealed she had ambiguous genitalia.
1936: Polish runner Stella Walsh and America's Helen Stephens are accused of being male imposters during the Berlin Olympics.
1938: German high jumper Dora Ratjen is identified as male, and Germany return the gold medal won at the European Championship. Der Spiegel wrote in 2009 that Ratjen was born with ambiguous genitalia and was raised as a girl at the suggestion of a midwife.
1968: International Olympic Committee begin comprehensive "gender testing".
1972-1984: 13 women "fail" gender tests.
1985: Spanish hurdler Maria Jose Martinez-Patino is told her chromosome test is abnormal. Martinez-Patino refuses to quit or feign injury, and further investigation reveals that a genetic condition meant she was insensitive to testosterone that was in her blood.
2009: Caster Semenya is asked to take a gender test and the results are reported in the media.
2014: Dutee Chand is banned from competing after results of a gender test.
2015: Chand has her ban overturned and the IAAF rules requiring female athletes to take testosterone-suppressing medication are suspended for two years.
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/othersports/athletics/6170229/Caster-Semenya-is-a-hermaphrodite-tests-show.htmlAccording to reports [...] the medical tests have established that she has no womb or ovaries and that she also has internal testes – the male sexual organs responsible for producing testosterone.
In order to counter this natural advantage, the IAAF ruling will force Caster Semenya to take testosterone-suppressant drugs.It showed those with naturally high-occurring testosterone levels enjoyed an advantage of between 1.8 and 4.5 per cent over their rivals.
In the 800metres, Semenya’s No1 event, the advantage was 1.8 per cent while over 400m athletes were able to go 2.7 per cent faster.