The Marshall Plan & the Berlin Airlift: America saves Europe, 1947 - 49, 70 years ago ....

owedtojoy

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The real start of the last Cold War took place in the years 1947 and 1948, and by mid-1949 it had become the ruling fact in global international relations. It lasted for the next 40 years. The main contention in 1947 was about Germany - was Germany to be part of the Soviet bloc, the Western bloc, or to be a "Greater Finland" (nominally neutral, but practically a nullity in international affairs)?

These were critical years in other areas – India became independent in 1947, signalling the diminution of the British Empire, the UK and other European Empires as forces in world affairs. Israel declared Independence in May, 1948. Mao Zedong declared the creation of the Peoples Republic of China in 1949. All of these are still significant events. But with the heralding of “a new Cold war”, perhaps the causes of the last one 70 years ago is worth another look.

1946: Preliminary
The Western Allies become increasingly disillusioned as the Soviet Union imposed Communist authoritarian governments on the Eastern European countries it occupied. It had also changed borders and forced mass migrations to suit its own strategic needs. In March, Winston Churchill gave his famous speech referring to the “Iron Curtain” in Europe (Fulton, Ms).

I: 1947, The Breakup Commences:

Early in the year, the British told the Americans they can no longer afford to subsidise the Greek Government in fighting Communist insurgency, nor subsidise Turkish armed forces (Feb). Trump enunciated to Congress what became known as the Truman Doctrine - the US would underwrite Greece and Turkey in their fights against Communism, and by implication any other country in that position. Later Truman obtained approval for $400 million package of aid for those countries (Feb – June).

In fact, Stalin was not the main Communist supporter of the Greek insurgency – that was Tito of Yugoslavia. To Stalin, Greece was a sideshow, and he told Tito that the Americans would just come in with overwhelming force to crush the partisans. That is what happened, though without American ground troops. To Stalin, the decisive “front” was Germany, but he did not want a shooting war with the Americans.

Germany was in the position of a country that had suffered an enormous catastrophe. Germans were existing on rations of roughly 1000 calories per day, about half the amount a working man needed. But countries like Britain were also on rations. Most European countries were short of food. 80% of the Ruhr, German’s industrial heartland, had been destroyed. Germany needed to get back on its feet economically, and that was the main contention between the Soviets and Americans (whom the British supported).

In their zone, the Soviets were still extracting reparations in the form of plant and machinery from surviving industries, and by taking shares in whatever enterprises functioned. Their demand was to be allowed do the same in the other zones. The Potsdam Agreement (1945) was vague in this regard. Stalin adhered to something like the Morgenthau Plan, from the US Secretary of the Treasury, to deny Germany any return to an industrial base, and to turn Germany into a pastoral country only, with no capability to make war. FDR had dragooned Churchill into buying into this Plan, but by the end of the war it had been abandoned by the British.

General Lucius Clay, the military governor of the American Zone, opposed the Morgenthau Plan and pushed to redevelop German industry. Truman came down against the Plan and took Morgenthau’s resignation. He told an aide “Morgenthau does not know sh!t from apple butter”, unfair but apposite.

“You need to give hay to your horse if you want it to pull your cart” said Churchill to Stalin, during one of their meetings. “Why give it hay, if it might turn around and kick you?” was Stalin’s reply, betraying his continuing mistrust of Germany.

The Allies could see that an underdeveloped Germany would just be a continuous drain on their treasuries – at the time both were supporting Germany with money and food. It would also probably be permanently politically unstable. France was ambiguous and had designs on annexing the Saar region, but eventually took the side of the US and Britain. The Western Allies were determined to set Germany on a path to development, with or without the Soviets.

II: 1947, Enter George Marshall



A long Foreign Ministers’ meeting was held in Moscow in April 1947. Marshall, flanked by Bevin and Bidault from the UK and France, insisted that reparations had to wait until Germany could afford it, but the Russians continued to push that it must come out of current production. They demanded a share in what enterprises had survived in the West. Even a meeting with Stalin could not mend the divisions.

Stalin proposed a plebiscite in Germany to determine the future of the country “democratically”. Marshall much have blanched – he knew what had happened in the fake plebiscites held where the Soviets held sway. With the KPD (Germany Communist Party) strong, and the French Communist Party sharing power in France (and therefore the French Zone), leading to possible subversion of the vote, a free and fair plebiscite could not be guaranteed. The Soviets had tried to finagle a “union” of the KPD with the much more popular Social Democrats (SPD) but had only succeeded in their own zone.

Marshall however had a Plan B, which was the genesis of the famous Marshall Plan, announced in a speech at Harvard University in June 1947. Eventually, it was to offer over $100 billion in today’s money in loans for European reconstruction.

But there was more to it than that. As a condition, the Americans demanded a Europe-wide response, and Britain and France quickly set up the Committee on European Economic Co-operation (CEEC) in Paris. The Russians were invited (so was Ireland) but Molotov soon walked out, claiming that America was violating the economic sovereignty of the nations of Europe.

In truth, the Americans were relieved. They dreaded the Russian demands for economic relief in Soviet allied nations, something that would have made the Marshall Plan odious in the eyes of the US Congress. Stalin could have stifled the Marshall Plan at birth or rendered it stunted and weak. Not doing so must be one of his greatest errors.

Soon, only the Western European countries were left (except Spain, whose Dictator Franco still suffered from the fascist taint). It is tempting to see the start of the process that was to lead to the European Union. With one exception, that had future ramifications – the UK still had two-thirds of its trade with the Commonwealth, and still saw itself as a global power (despite India). It had to be nudged by the Americans into co-operation, and Commonwealth Preference was left intact. In a further step, Britain accepted Commonwealth immigrants in preference to Italians or Portuguese who would have gone there to work..

Meanwhile, the American grimaced at the report produced by the Committee – they could see the duplications and inefficiencies within it, with most countries wanting a steel industry, for example. But they accepted it as a basis for negotiation, and it was (just about) acceptable to Congress.

III: 1948 The Onset of Cold War: Battlefront Berlin

January: the Allies introduced the D-mark or Deutsche Mark (aka Deutschmark) to replace the inflated Occupation Currency in their zones (except in Berlin). They united the British and American zones into Bizonia, the prototype of the West German state (the Federal Republic of Germany) that was to absorb the east in 1990. The payments of reparations to the Soviets from the Western Zones was halted.



February: A coup d’etat completed a Communist takeover of Czechoslovakia. It was the last country occupied by the Russians that had a vestige of democracy.

Acting on orders from Moscow, Communist Parties in France and Italy instigated a series of strikes, demonstrations and even riots against the plan. However, public opinion in the West solidified behind the Marshall Plan, the Communists lost positions in Government, and generally Centre-Right parties profited. The Western Communists tried to explain to Stalin and Molotov that the Marshall Plan was too popular, but to no avail.

A parallel process happened in the US, where public sentiment led to private collections of food and gifts for shipment to starving Europe. About two-thirds of Congress visited Europe singly or in groups on fact-finding trips. The clear majority returned determined to assist the Continent get back on its feet.

March: The Soviets withdrew from the Allied Control Commission that was supposed to supervise the re-organisation of Germany. It had been in gridlock for some time, and was never re-formed. This was the last co-operative enterprise between the wartime allies, and now it was gone. The only function it retained was to manage Spandau Prison, which held the surviving Nazi leaders.

The Soviets identified Allied sectors of Berlin (later to be know as West Berlin) as the weakness of the US and British primarily. Here, the Allies were surrounded by Soviet forces and were quickly reduced to siege conditions by closing road, rail and canal transport to the former Reich capital from the American and British zones. This took place between March and June, 1948.

This was triggered the first international crisis of the Cold War, one that could easily have turned into a shooting war. The Allies had stark choices – begin a military incursion into the Soviet zone to the clear a permanent supply conduit, or abandon West Berlin to the Soviets. Truman was determined not to surrender to Soviet coercion, and a third option presented itself.

Luckily, the Allies controlled three airfields within their zones (Tempelhof, Tegel, Gatow) and three air corridors had been agreed with the Soviets. While these were often “buzzed” by Soviet planes, leading once to a fatal accident, the British had already run a “Little Air Lift” in April to supply their own troops. The logistics of supplying the city totally by air had been worked out and was thought to be feasible.

The Airlift last from June, 1948 to May, 1949 and was a resounding Soviet defeat, perhaps the decisive one in the Cold War. At one point, planes were landing in Berlin every couple of minutes, bringing vital supplies like potatoes and coal. 60% of the planes were American, the rest were mainly French or British and Commonwealth, from Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Canada.

[video=youtube;9gpYsK90aio]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9gpYsK90aio[/video]
(An American, view, not 100% accurate, but fun]

The Airlift was a pleasant revelation to both Germans and Allies – the Germans expected the Allies to cave to the Soviets as they seemed to have before on every occasion, while the Allies expected the Germans to prefer brute authoritarianism, like they seemed do in 1933. One British pilot who had flown into Berlin in 1946 walked into a hotel bar wearing his uniform. The locals got up and walked out in disgust. During the Airlift, he did the same, and the locals crowded around to shake his hand and slap him on the back.

IV: Aftermath

In 1949, the Allies constituted the Federal Republic of Germany in what was now Trizonia (the American, French and British zones). When the Cold War moved to Asia, with the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, German began to re-arm, later to join NATO. In many ways, the Berlin Airlift was the first NATO operation.

Berlin remained the main flash-point. During the Cuban Missile Crisis, US and Soviet tanks confronted each other for a tense few days. But the Cold war was "frozen" in Europe, which went on to have the most peaceful period in its long recorded history. The "hot" parts of the Cold War moved elsewhere, mainly to Asia (Korea, Vietnam), and to a lesser extent to Africa (Angola, Mozambique). It also played a role in Middle East conflicts.

However, the prompt and brave actions of Truman and Marshall, backed by the US Congress and the dedicated Allies pilots who piloted the transport planes, created the space that gave a continent, war-torn throughout history, an unprecedented period of prosperity and security.
 


shiel

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Joined
Feb 14, 2011
Messages
17,444
Thanks very much for that.

It puts present day arguments about the EU in perspective.

Europe was on the verge of starvation in the immediate post war period. The CAP and the importance of food security resulted in later years.

It is not realised that in this country bread was not rationed right through the war but it was rationed in 1947 when a combination of the post war devastation of Europe and very bad weather made food even scarcer.

The Berlin airlift was a miracle of organisation and logistics.

We in Europe owe America a lot from that period not to mention their contribution to the defeat of totalitarian Germany and the longer drawn out victory over the successors of Stalin.
 

rainmaker

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Messages
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The real start of the last Cold War took place in the years 1947 and 1948, and by mid-1949 it had become the ruling fact in global international relations. It lasted for the next 40 years. The main contention in 1947 was about Germany - was Germany to be part of the Soviet bloc, the Western bloc, or to be a "Greater Finland" (nominally neutral, but practically a nullity in international affairs)?

These were critical years in other areas – India became independent in 1947, signalling the diminution of the British Empire, the UK and other European Empires as forces in world affairs. Israel declared Independence in May, 1948. Mao Zedong declared the creation of the Peoples Republic of China in 1949. All of these are still significant events. But with the heralding of “a new Cold war”, perhaps the causes of the last one 70 years ago is worth another look.

1946: Preliminary
The Western Allies become increasingly disillusioned as the Soviet Union imposed Communist authoritarian governments on the Eastern European countries it occupied. It had also changed borders and forced mass migrations to suit its own strategic needs. In March, Winston Churchill gave his famous speech referring to the “Iron Curtain” in Europe (Fulton, Ms).

I: 1947, The Breakup Commences:

Early in the year, the British told the Americans they can no longer afford to subsidise the Greek Government in fighting Communist insurgency, nor subsidise Turkish armed forces (Feb). Trump enunciated to Congress what became known as the Truman Doctrine - the US would underwrite Greece and Turkey in their fights against Communism, and by implication any other country in that position. Later Truman obtained approval for $400 million package of aid for those countries (Feb – June).

In fact, Stalin was not the main Communist supporter of the Greek insurgency – that was Tito of Yugoslavia. To Stalin, Greece was a sideshow, and he told Tito that the Americans would just come in with overwhelming force to crush the partisans. That is what happened, though without American ground troops. To Stalin, the decisive “front” was Germany, but he did not want a shooting war with the Americans.

Germany was in the position of a country that had suffered an enormous catastrophe. Germans were existing on rations of roughly 1000 calories per day, about half the amount a working man needed. But countries like Britain were also on rations. Most European countries were short of food. 80% of the Ruhr, German’s industrial heartland, had been destroyed. Germany needed to get back on its feet economically, and that was the main contention between the Soviets and Americans (whom the British supported).

In their zone, the Soviets were still extracting reparations in the form of plant and machinery from surviving industries, and by taking shares in whatever enterprises functioned. Their demand was to be allowed do the same in the other zones. The Potsdam Agreement (1945) was vague in this regard. Stalin adhered to something like the Morgenthau Plan, from the US Secretary of the Treasury, to deny Germany any return to an industrial base, and to turn Germany into a pastoral country only, with no capability to make war. FDR had dragooned Churchill into buying into this Plan, but by the end of the war it had been abandoned by the British.

General Lucius Clay, the military governor of the American Zone, opposed the Morgenthau Plan and pushed to redevelop German industry. Truman came down against the Plan and took Morgenthau’s resignation. He told an aide “Morgenthau does not know sh!t from apple butter”, unfair but apposite.

“You need to give hay to your horse if you want it to pull your cart” said Churchill to Stalin, during one of their meetings. “Why give it hay, if it might turn around and kick you?” was Stalin’s reply, betraying his continuing mistrust of Germany.

The Allies could see that an underdeveloped Germany would just be a continuous drain on their treasuries – at the time both were supporting Germany with money and food. It would also probably be permanently politically unstable. France was ambiguous and had designs on annexing the Saar region, but eventually took the side of the US and Britain. The Western Allies were determined to set Germany on a path to development, with or without the Soviets.

II: 1947, Enter George Marshall



A long Foreign Ministers’ meeting was held in Moscow in April 1947. Marshall, flanked by Bevin and Bidault from the UK and France, insisted that reparations had to wait until Germany could afford it, but the Russians continued to push that it must come out of current production. They demanded a share in what enterprises had survived in the West. Even a meeting with Stalin could not mend the divisions.

Stalin proposed a plebiscite in Germany to determine the future of the country “democratically”. Marshall much have blanched – he knew what had happened in the fake plebiscites held where the Soviets held sway. With the KPD (Germany Communist Party) strong, and the French Communist Party sharing power in France (and therefore the French Zone), leading to possible subversion of the vote, a free and fair plebiscite could not be guaranteed. The Soviets had tried to finagle a “union” of the KPD with the much more popular Social Democrats (SPD) but had only succeeded in their own zone.

Marshall however had a Plan B, which was the genesis of the famous Marshall Plan, announced in a speech at Harvard University in June 1947. Eventually, it was to offer over $100 billion in today’s money in loans for European reconstruction.

But there was more to it than that. As a condition, the Americans demanded a Europe-wide response, and Britain and France quickly set up the Committee on European Economic Co-operation (CEEC) in Paris. The Russians were invited (so was Ireland) but Molotov soon walked out, claiming that America was violating the economic sovereignty of the nations of Europe.

In truth, the Americans were relieved. They dreaded the Russian demands for economic relief in Soviet allied nations, something that would have made the Marshall Plan odious in the eyes of the US Congress. Stalin could have stifled the Marshall Plan at birth or rendered it stunted and weak. Not doing so must be one of his greatest errors.

Soon, only the Western European countries were left (except Spain, whose Dictator Franco still suffered from the fascist taint). It is tempting to see the start of the process that was to lead to the European Union. With one exception, that had future ramifications – the UK still had two-thirds of its trade with the Commonwealth, and still saw itself as a global power (despite India). It had to be nudged by the Americans into co-operation, and Commonwealth Preference was left intact. In a further step, Britain accepted Commonwealth immigrants in preference to Italians or Portuguese who would have gone there to work..

Meanwhile, the American grimaced at the report produced by the Committee – they could see the duplications and inefficiencies within it, with most countries wanting a steel industry, for example. But they accepted it as a basis for negotiation, and it was (just about) acceptable to Congress.

III: 1948 The Onset of Cold War: Battlefront Berlin

January: the Allies introduced the D-mark or Deutsche Mark (aka Deutschmark) to replace the inflated Occupation Currency in their zones (except in Berlin). They united the British and American zones into Bizonia, the prototype of the West German state (the Federal Republic of Germany) that was to absorb the east in 1990. The payments of reparations to the Soviets from the Western Zones was halted.



February: A coup d’etat completed a Communist takeover of Czechoslovakia. It was the last country occupied by the Russians that had a vestige of democracy.

Acting on orders from Moscow, Communist Parties in France and Italy instigated a series of strikes, demonstrations and even riots against the plan. However, public opinion in the West solidified behind the Marshall Plan, the Communists lost positions in Government, and generally Centre-Right parties profited. The Western Communists tried to explain to Stalin and Molotov that the Marshall Plan was too popular, but to no avail.

A parallel process happened in the US, where public sentiment led to private collections of food and gifts for shipment to starving Europe. About two-thirds of Congress visited Europe singly or in groups on fact-finding trips. The clear majority returned determined to assist the Continent get back on its feet.

March: The Soviets withdrew from the Allied Control Commission that was supposed to supervise the re-organisation of Germany. It had been in gridlock for some time, and was never re-formed. This was the last co-operative enterprise between the wartime allies, and now it was gone. The only function it retained was to manage Spandau Prison, which held the surviving Nazi leaders.

The Soviets identified Allied sectors of Berlin (later to be know as West Berlin) as the weakness of the US and British primarily. Here, the Allies were surrounded by Soviet forces and were quickly reduced to siege conditions by closing road, rail and canal transport to the former Reich capital from the American and British zones. This took place between March and June, 1948.

This was triggered the first international crisis of the Cold War, one that could easily have turned into a shooting war. The Allies had stark choices – begin a military incursion into the Soviet zone to the clear a permanent supply conduit, or abandon West Berlin to the Soviets. Truman was determined not to surrender to Soviet coercion, and a third option presented itself.

Luckily, the Allies controlled three airfields within their zones (Tempelhof, Tegel, Gatow) and three air corridors had been agreed with the Soviets. While these were often “buzzed” by Soviet planes, leading once to a fatal accident, the British had already run a “Little Air Lift” in April to supply their own troops. The logistics of supplying the city totally by air had been worked out and was thought to be feasible.

The Airlift last from June, 1948 to May, 1949 and was a resounding Soviet defeat, perhaps the decisive one in the Cold War. At one point, planes were landing in Berlin every couple of minutes, bringing vital supplies like potatoes and coal. 60% of the planes were American, the rest were mainly French or British and Commonwealth, from Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Canada.

[video=youtube;9gpYsK90aio]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9gpYsK90aio[/video]
(An American, view, not 100% accurate, but fun]

The Airlift was a pleasant revelation to both Germans and Allies – the Germans expected the Allies to cave to the Soviets as they seemed to have before on every occasion, while the Allies expected the Germans to prefer brute authoritarianism, like they seemed do in 1933. One British pilot who had flown into Berlin in 1946 walked into a hotel bar wearing his uniform. The locals got up and walked out in disgust. During the Airlift, he did the same, and the locals crowded around to shake his hand and slap him on the back.

IV: Aftermath

In 1949, the Allies constituted the Federal Republic of Germany in what was now Trizonia (the American, French and British zones). When the Cold War moved to Asia, with the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, German began to re-arm, later to join NATO. In many ways, the Berlin Airlift was the first NATO operation.

Berlin remained the main flash-point. During the Cuban Missile Crisis, US and Soviet tanks confronted each other for a tense few days. But the Cold war was "frozen" in Europe, which went on to have the most peaceful period in its long recorded history. The "hot" parts of the Cold War moved elsewhere, mainly to Asia (Korea, Vietnam), and to a lesser extent to Africa (Angola, Mozambique). It also played a role in Middle East conflicts.

However, the prompt and brave actions of Truman and Marshall, backed by the US Congress and the dedicated Allies pilots who piloted the transport planes, created the space that gave a continent, war-torn throughout history, an unprecedented period of prosperity and security.
Excellent OP. Spent a lot of time in Berlin and love the place - the sense of history there is almost palpable.
 

GDPR

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A fascinating period in history that played a big part in Europe for decades to come. Europe must never go back to the days of all consuming wars.

Sent from my SM-A320FL using Tapatalk
 

owedtojoy

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Excellent OP. Spent a lot of time in Berlin and love the place - the sense of history there is almost palpable.
Yes, i was lucky to get to Berlin both before and after 1989, even got a few hours in the old East Berlin.

I talked to one guy who was a child when Kennedy made he "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech. He said everyone knew what Kennedy meant (even though he got the semantics wrong), and that JFK would always be special to citizens of Berlin.
 
Last edited:

GDPR

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You really need to see the Marshall Plan films, made to explain what it was all about to European audiences, and shown in cinemas before the Main Feature. So innocent and earnest, but quite right, actually.

[video=youtube;cKROWsv0WYY]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cKROWsv0WYY[/video]
 

owedtojoy

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A fascinating period in history that played a big part in Europe for decades to come. Europe must never go back to the days of all consuming wars.

Sent from my SM-A320FL using Tapatalk
Absolutely.

Europe post-war had fallen lower than the pits.

Authoritarian Communism seemed the future. Capitalism had failed in the 1930s, where the Soviet Union had industrialised itself enough to defeat Hitler. That most of the industrial war-winning power had in fact come from the USA was not fully appreciated.

Some countries had been occupied since 1940 or before, and it was considered patriotic to use the black market rather than the occupier's version. People had lived so long under command and control economics that the free market had been forgotten.

There was a "European Miracle" but the initial impetus came from the US. The Europeans just ran with it.
 

owedtojoy

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You really need to see the Marshall Plan films, made to explain what it was all about to European audiences, and shown in cinemas before the Main Feature. So innocent and earnest, but quite right, actually.

[video=youtube;cKROWsv0WYY]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cKROWsv0WYY[/video]
These films must have been very effective, as any plan to render economic assistance to a country or countries on a large scale is often described as a "Marshall Plan". For example, I read that Southern US States gathered together in 1948 and demanded a "Marshall Plan for the South". The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals" suggested a "Marshall Plan for Europe's Pets".

The Marshall Plan is in the lexicon, immortalising the conservative and slightly dour General George C Marshall
 

Cruimh

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Sotired

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Very interesting OP.

Thanks.

Although you might want to edit this bit.

“Trump enunciated to Congress what became known as the Truman Doctrine.”
 

firefly123

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Very interesting OP.

Thanks.

Although you might want to edit this bit.

“Trump enunciated to Congress what became known as the Truman Doctrine.”
saw that.

laughed

great OP.

I look forward to reading how it was all a capitalist plot to pollute the air with kerosene fumes or something
 
Last edited:

shiel

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Very interesting OP.

Thanks.

Although you might want to edit this bit.

“Trump enunciated to Congress what became known as the Truman Doctrine.”
I know.

The mind wanders sometimes.
 

McTell

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Very interesting article, the first crack in the splendid isolationism policy.

There was another angle, from a congressman Fogarty in the US, who said that britain should not be helped out with any marshall aid at all until the border with NI came down.

Funny that his wiki page sez nothing about ireland... however he went on calling for the end of the border into the 1960s.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_E._Fogarty

In 1950 he moved the Fogarty Resolution, pointing out that NI was costing the brits $150,000,000 pa (even more pro rata than today), but it was defeated in september 1951.
 

Erudite Caveman

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saw that.

laughed

great OP.

I look forward to reading how it was all a capitalist plot to pollute the air with kerosene fumes or something
How about... So long as the Iron Curtain was drawn, there was no way of importing millions of Muslims into western Europe. Had to get rid of that first before Soros and the Bilderbergers cold have their evil way.
 

firefly123

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How about... So long as the Iron Curtain was drawn, there was no way of importing millions of Muslims into western Europe. Had to get rid of that first before Soros and the Bilderbergers cold have their evil way.
Also illuminati and elders of Zion chemtrails
 

Cruimh

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There was another angle, from a congressman Fogarty in the US, who said that britain should not be helped out with any marshall aid at all until the border with NI came down.

Funny that his wiki page sez nothing about ireland... however he went on calling for the end of the border into the 1960s.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_E._Fogarty

In 1950 he moved the Fogarty Resolution, pointing out that NI was costing the brits $150,000,000 pa (even more pro rata than today), but it was defeated in september 1951.
An interesting read: http://library.providence.edu/spcol/fa/pdf/John_E_Fogarty_Bricklayer.pdf
 

Cruimh

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How about... So long as the Iron Curtain was drawn, there was no way of importing millions of Muslims into western Europe. Had to get rid of that first before Soros and the Bilderbergers cold have their evil way.
Also illuminati and elders of Zion chemtrails
As someone with investments in Pram manufacturing and retailing it is all grist to the mill!
 


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