The story of the Veteran & the last Jacobite to be hanged

Antóin Mac Comháin

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"Oh ! Drummossie, thy bleak moor shall, ere many generations have passed away, be stained with the best blood of the Highlands. Glad am I that I will not see that day, for it will be a fearful period; heads will be lopped off by the score, and no mercy will be shown or quarter given on either side." - The Brahan Seer https://www.******************/threads/f%C3%A0isneachdan-an-choinnich-odhair-the-prophecies-of-the-brahan-seer.25093/

The Veteran

After the defeat of the Jacobites at Culloden and the end of the ’45 Rising there was a small problem in how best to cope with the number of people taken prisoner for their roles in the Rising. Unsurprisingly the solution was transportation with many Jacobite prisoners sent overseas to colonies in North America and the West Indies.

One such ship that had the job of taking prisoners across the Atlantic was the Veteran which had an interesting experience on one of its voyages.

On 8th May 1747 the Veteran set sail from the port of Liverpool with some 150 prisoners on board. The prisoners recorded apparently included men, some young boys still in their teens and 15 women. The women included a group of seven who had been captured some 18 months previously and were still together in a group.

The Veteran was to head for the Leeward Islands where the prisoners would most likely be sold as indentured slaves to plantation owners in Antigua, Barbados and St Kitts & Nevis. The journey seemingly went well enough with no apparent problems until the day before their scheduled arrival in Antigua. Unprepared the ship was attacked by a French ship, the Diamond. After a short engagement the French ship, under the command of Captain Paul Marsale claimed victory and took control of the Veteran.

The Diamond took the prisoners back to the French island of Martinique where they were released. Here the Governor of the island freed the prisoners and gave them their liberty.

When news of this reached the British Government they wrote to the Governor demanding that he return the prisoners to the British. It is said the letter was rather direct and though polite in its terms was none the less insistent. It stated that all the prisoners belonged to the British Government and therefore should be returned to a Government representative. The Governor of Martinique, having received the letter some six months after the prisoners had been freed, refused the request. - https://cullodenbattlefield.wordpress.com/2017/04/07/the-veteran/

The Act of Proscription

Para 21 and for the second, or any subsequent offence, being thereof lawfully convicted before the court of justiciary, or in any of the circuit courts, shall be adjudged to be transported, and accordingly shall be transported to some of his Majesty's plantations in America for life; and in case any person adjudged to be so transported shall return into, or be found in Great Briton, then every such person shall suffer imprisonment for life. - www.tartansauthority.com › Tartan › The Growth of Tartan

list of prisoners transported on the 'veteran' - Jacobite Rebellion of 1745

Anne Cameron from Lochaber, Occupation: Spinner & Knitter
Regiment: Regiment not known Rank: Regimental Woman
Prisoner No.: 331 Prisoner at: Carlisle, Lancaster Castle
Aged 28 years, little woman. Captured at Carlisle on 30 December 1745. Imprisoned ‘And her female child aged 2
months’ at Carlisle and Lancaster Castle. ‘Knits and spins.’ Transported on ‘Veteran’, Ships Master, John Ricky. Left
Liverpool on 5 May 1747 for the Leeward Islands which was taken near Antigua, 28 June 1747 by the 'Diamond'
Privateer, Paul Marsale, Commander and carried into Martinique on 30 June 1747. All prisoners aboard were
released.
Her child was given the prisoner number 332, not named.

Anne Cameron from Lochaber, Occupation: Spins & Knits
Regiment: n/a Rank: n/a
Prisoner No.: n/a Prisoner at:
Aged 30 years, little woman. Non Combatant. Transported on ‘Veteran’, Ships Master, John Ricky. Left Liverpool on
5 May 1747 for the Leeward Islands which was taken near Antigua, 28 June 1747 by the 'Diamond' Privateer, Paul
Marsale, Commander and carried into Martinique on 30 June 1747. All prisoners aboard were released.
Not listed in ‘Prisoners of the ‘45’

Alexander Cameron from Inverness, Occupation: Labourer
Regiment: n/a Rank: n/a
Prisoner No.: n/a Prisoner at:
Aged 19 years, 5’ 4”, brown, well made. Non Combatant. Listed as a prisoner aboard the ‘Veteran’. Transported on
‘Veteran’, Ships Master, John Ricky. Left Liverpool on 5 May 1747 for the Leeward Islands which was taken near
Antigua, 28 June 1747 by the 'Diamond' Privateer, Paul Marsale, Commander and carried into Martinique on 30 June
1747. All prisoners aboard were released.
Not listed in ‘Prisoners of the ‘45’

Effie Cameron from Lochaber, Occupation: Spinner & Knitter
Regiment: Regiment not known Rank: Regimental Woman
Prisoner No.: 352 Prisoner at: Carlisle, Lancaster Castle
Aged 28, black hair, swarthy. Captured at the fall of Carlisle on 30 December 1745 and sent to Lancaster Castle.
‘Knits and spins’. Transported to Antigua, 8 May 1747. Is on the list of prisoners aboard the ‘Veteran’. Transported on
‘Veteran’, Ships Master, John Ricky. Left Liverpool on 5 May 1747 for the Leeward Islands which was taken near
Antigua, 28 June 1747 by the 'Diamond' Privateer, Paul Marsale, Commander and carried into Martinique on 30 June
1747. All prisoners aboard were released.

Flora Cameron from Lochaber, Occupation: Lochaber
Regiment: Regiment not known Rank: Regimental Woman
Prisoner No.: 356 Prisoner at: Carlisle, Lancaster Castle
Aged 40, black hair. Captured at the fall of Carlisle on 30 December 1745 and imprisoned ‘And her child’ at Carlisle
and Lancaster Castle. Transported to Antigua, 8 May 1747. Is listed as a prisoner aboard the ‘Veteran’. Transported
on ‘Veteran’, Ships Master, John Ricky. Left Liverpool on 5 May 1747 for the Leeward Islands which was taken near
Antigua, 28 June 1747 by the 'Diamond' Privateer, Paul Marsale, Commander and carried into Martinique on 30 June
1747. All prisoners aboard were released.

http://www.jacobites.net/uploads/2/4/3/9/24396590/list_of_prisoners_transported_on_veteran.pdf

The story of the last Jacobite to be hanged

He was one of Bonnie Prince Charlie’s most trusted men - and the last Jacobite to be hanged for their role in the 1745 Uprising. Following his capture some eight years after the rebellion, Dr Archibald Cameron of Lochaber was stretched on a sledge and hung for 20 minutes before being cut down and beheaded at Tyburn on the outskirts of London, where enemies of the state were sent to their death.

He was arrested for high-treason at a house near Loch Katrine after a tip off by MacDonell of Glengarry - also known as Pickle the Spy - a former high ranking Jacobite turned informer to the Hanoverians.

First imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle and taken to Tower Hill, London, he was then sentenced to death on the 7th of June 1753. His wife, reportedly pregnant with their eight child at the time, was among those who begged for a reprieve for the “gentle and humane” physician.

Browne added: “Some of the best wishers to the government thought the sacrifice of this unfortunate gentlemen a most unnecessary and wanton act at such a juncture, and that such a distance of time from the period of his attainder.” Dr Cameron had been one of the first men to greet Bonnie Prince Charlie at Loch nan Uamh near Arisaig after he arrived in Scotland in July 1745. The physician was the brother of Donald Cameron of Lochiel, with both men to become key figures in the Prince’s inner sanctum during the rebellion.

Such was his influence within the Jacobite leadership in Scotland, Dr Cameron was one of a handful of men to stay with Bonnie Prince Charlie in the secret hideout “The Cage” in August 1746. The exact location of the bolthole, which slept only six or seven, is still debated. While some say it was a cave on the south western end of Loch Ericht, others believe it was an artificial structure on a southern spur of Ben Alder, covered in a thicket of holly and overlooking the loch.

Whatever its co-ordinates, the accommodation was only open to the most trusted few. Dr Cameron and his brother were to join the Prince on L’Horeaux as it set sail for France from Loch nan Uamh the following month. The Prince was to soon take up residence in a quayside apartment in Paris and Dr Cameron, who was to live on French Government grants made to Jacobite exiles, was a regular visitor. In addition, the French government was to make Dr Cameron a commander of the second battalion of a new Scottish regiment within the French Army, with his brother to be in overall command.

In A Historical Account of the Life, Actions and Conduct of Dr Archibald Cameron, printed in London shortly after his death, it said: “Dr Cameron who might have made a considerable figure even in a court or a populous and well cultivated city, contents himself with exercising his talents among a people whose manner...resemble them very much to the wild beast of the forest. “Yet by his gentle and humane carriage among them, many were taught to follow a more honest course of life than is generally ascribed to the Highlanders.” More than 90 men were executed following their part in the uprising. Dr Archibald Cameron was the last, his death deemed necessary to prevent any future Jacobite plots against the state.

Read more at: https://www.scotsman.com/lifestyle/the-story-of-the-last-jacobite-to-be-hanged-1-4191929


“The sheep shall eat the men” - The Brahan Seer

The man who rid the Hebrides of thousands of men, women and children

He has been described as one of the most hated men in Scottish history, a brutal landowner who forcibly evicted up to 3,000 tenants to Canada, some handcuffed and thrown on boats at Lochboisdale “like cattle.”

Colonel John Gordon of Cluny, of Cluny Castle, Aberdeenshire, embarked on removing people from their Hebridean homes in 1851 after he saw poor returns on his estate in the Western Isles, which included land on Benbecula, South Uist and Barra.

Within nine years, the deteriorating condition of the islanders was described “as a scene of wretchedness” by Reverend Norman Macleod as land for farming was reduced for sheep grazing. “Despicable, nay heart rending,” is how the minister described the scene entering the Cluny estate.

“On the beach the whole population of the country seems to be met, gathering the precious cockles...I never witnessed such countenances, starvation on many faces,” the account, contained in The Jaws of Sheep: 1851 Hebridean Clearances of Gordon of Cluny, said.

Four years later, Gordon, who also owned six plantations in the West Indies and was described as the ‘richest commoner” in Scotland, began forced evictions on all his islands.

A compulsory public meeting in Lochboisdale, South Uist, was held on August 11 1851, after which tenants were forced on board waiting emigration vessels.

One account of the meeting summed up the chaos, violence and fear of the night: “One stout Highlander, named Angus Johnstone, resisted with such pith that they had to handcuff him before he could be mastered, but in consequence of the priests’ interference his manacles were taken off and (he was) marched between four officers on board the emigrant vessel.”

On Barra, attempts were also made to handcuff the evictees. Some managed to run to the hills where they were hunted down by dogs. A number of families were separated.

The evictions were described as “loathsome work” by eyewitness Catherine Macphee, of Iochdar, South Uist.

According to The Jaws of Sheep, she said: “I have seen big strong men, champions of the countryside, the stalwarts of the world, being bound on Loch Boisdale quay and cast into the ship as would be done to a batch of horses or cattle, the bailiff and the ground officers and the policemen gathered behind them in pursuit.”

A newspaper cutting from the Dundas Warder, printed in Hamilton, Ontario, October 2 1851, illustrates concern over the condition of the new Highland arrivals. “We have been pained beyond measure for some time past, to witness on our streets so many unfortunate Highland emigrants, apparently destitute of any means of subsistence and may of them sick for other attendant cause.”

Gordon, who also served as a Tory MP for Weymouth and Melcombe, Regis died in 1858 his estate ultimately passing to the wife of his late son, John Gordon of Cluny.

In 2006, a community buy out acquired the entire share capital of the company with Storas Uibis formed by residents.

Read more at: https://www.scotsman.com/regions/inverness-highlands-islands/the-man-who-rid-the-hebrides-of-thousands-of-men-women-and-children-1-4192914

Another event allegedly predicted by the mysterious Brahan Seer were the Highland Clearances, when he said that: “The sheep shall eat the men”.

During the Highland Clearances, families were driven from the Highlands by the landowners and the land they farmed was given over to the grazing of sheep.
 
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McTell

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A lot of the highland clearances stories have been bigged up since the 1960s, when it all became cool and trendy.

Seemingly most were moved to crofts on the coast, to pick seaweed, and the worst part was that many families had given a son to the army (I guess to the clan regiment) in return for land.

Moral of the story is, they had always belonged to their clan chiefs. Emigration was the best option by far.

Recent podcast I heard:

https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b09tc4tm
 

Antóin Mac Comháin

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Joined
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Messages
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A lot of the highland clearances stories have been bigged up since the 1960s, when it all became cool and trendy.

Seemingly most were moved to crofts on the coast, to pick seaweed, and the worst part was that many families had given a son to the army (I guess to the clan regiment) in return for land.

Moral of the story is, they had always belonged to their clan chiefs. Emigration was the best option by far.

Recent podcast I heard:

https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b09tc4tm
Professor Devine appears to have a bit of a problem with the Gaelic. He makes a good stab of trying to explain the Clan system, but gets basic things wrong, such as the translation of the word Clan, which he claims translates as Child. I've double-checked with Am Faclair Beag - Scottish Gaelic Dictionary. The problem with the view being pushed by Harper, is that Gordon didn't come from the Hebrides or the Highlands. He came from the east of Scotland. Dreadful stuff.
 

Barroso

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Professor Devine appears to have a bit of a problem with the Gaelic. He makes a good stab of trying to explain the Clan system, but gets basic things wrong, such as the translation of the word Clan, which he claims translates as Child. I've double-checked with Am Faclair Beag - Scottish Gaelic Dictionary. The problem with the view being pushed by Harper, is that Gordon didn't come from the Hebrides or the Highlands. He came from the east of Scotland. Dreadful stuff.
No idea of the nuances in Scotland, but in Irish mo chlann means my children; at least in my dialect. Despite what you might think you were taught at school.
 

Antóin Mac Comháin

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Messages
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No idea of the nuances in Scotland, but in Irish mo chlann means my children; at least in my dialect. Despite what you might think you were taught at school.
Scottish:

Leanabh - Baby, (young) child

Dalta - 1 Foster child, fosterling; 2 stepchild

Pàiste - Child, infant

Aithnichear leanabh air a bheusaibh - A child is known by its manners

Dictionary: Am Faclair Beag

Irish:

Child - Leanbh, páiste

Children - Clann

Family - Teaghlach, family (offspring)

Dictionary: Roberts

Yea, well according to the dictionary I've checked, it appears you are correct, with regard to children, but Homer says Mo Theaghlach..



BBC sources

LINKS AND FURTHER READING

Sir Tom Devine at the University of Edinburgh

Marjory Harper at the University of Aberdeen

Murray Pittock at the University of Glasgow

The Highland Clearances – Wikipedia

The Highland Clearances – Historic UK

Mapping Slavery

‘’The new LBS map interfaces also show the geographic distributions of the beneficiaries of slavery and compensation claims back in Great Britain and Scotland. Although the geolocation of these addresses is not complete – there are currently 3,496 addresses in the LBS database, linked to 3,520 individuals, and 2,485 of these addresses have been located on the British map so far – they confirm that there were significant disparities in the distributions over the country. Scotland had a disproportionately high concentration of beneficiaries, and these were geographically concentrated too – particularly in Edinburgh and Glasgow.’’ https://blog.nls.uk/mapping-slavery/


I'm skeptical of the sources, but in all fairness, he appears to intend to cover the subject of the Clearances predating the Act of Union in 1707 in his forthcoming book: T. M. Devine, The Scottish Clearances: A History of the Dispossessed 1600-1900 (Allen Lane, forthcoming in October 2018), so maybe he's not as biased as the next fella? We’ll have to wait and see. What we know for certain, with the information and facts available, is that the bulk of the Scottish Landlords involved in the slave trade, were concentrated in Edinburgh and Glasgow. The impression I got from the BBC documentary, is that they were conflating one with the other.

Philip D. Curtin is regarded as one of the leading lights on the subject of slavery from Africa to America. His 1969 accounting of enforced trade statistics records that between 1711 and 1810, 180,000 enslaved Africans were transported from the French posts in Senegambia, most being transported from Saint-Louis, Senegal, and James Fort in modern Gambia. Curtin estimated that 200 to 300 slaves were transported per year, and none at all in others. In response to these figures, popularly rejected by much of the Senegalese public, an African historical conference in 1998 claimed that records from the French trading houses of Nantes documented 103,000 slaves being from Gorée on Nantes-owned ships in a single year in the 18th century. The moral of the story being that Professors sometimes get it wrong.

As early as 1547 King Edward signed an English parliamentary decree legislating that vagabonds be branded like cattle with a V mark on their breast, to be sold at auctions for periods of 3-5 years, and in 1665 the Scottish government legislated for the transportation of ‘all able-bodied vagabonds to the Caribbean.’ In Ireland, mercenaries were paid £5 for the head of a Clan Chief, and 25 shillings for any other man, woman or child. John Thurloes State Papers from 1655 has a request for the shipment of '1,000 younge girles' from Ireland. The mind shudders! Hence why the old Gaelic Travelers had an expression which warned of incoming body-snatchers, 'Cean an arso.'

According to the Egerton manuscript, British Museum, the enactment of 1652: ‘’It may be lawful for two or more justices of peace within any county, citty or towne, corporate belonging to the commonwealth to from tyme to tyme by warrant cause to be apprehended, seized on and detained all and every person or persons that shall be found begging and vagrant.. in any towne, parish or place to be conveyed into the Port of London, or unto any other port from where such person or persons may be shipped into a forraign collonie or plantation.’’


Scots & Caribbean Slavery – victims and profiteers

Jacobites – Slaves exported to the West Indies

Note that many are from East & N.E. Scotland and England. Most of the Highlanders appear to be Roman Catholics from Invernes.shire. Most of them would be Catholics and Episcopalians.


List of Jacobites transported to the West Indies in 1747

Dear Mr Mullen,

I read that you are publishing a book on Slavery and wonder if you will be mentioning the Jacobites transported as slaves to the West Indies. They inter-married with the Africans. However, I doubt if you have any knowledge of these facts as Scottish History is not taught in Scottish schools and Scotch Historians only copy Anglo-Centric [expletive removed] from Unionist Historians. I do not think any of the above would own plantations in the West Indies but no doubt many of them would have [expletive removed] the African women working with them. Yours sincerely, [illegible signature].


‘’But should an unrepresentative example be used in an attempt to somehow exonerate much wider involvement elsewhere? Many hundreds (perhaps up to 2,000) of Scots were transported to the West Indies as indentured servants and David Dobson suggested that only 600 prisoners were deported between 1707 and 1763. Some of these might have become plantation owners themselves. Moreover, up to 20,000 Scots economic sojourners travelled voluntarily to the West Indies between 1750 and 1800 in a quest to find fame and fortune.’’ - https://glasgowwestindies.wordpress.com/2014/03/06/scots-caribbean-slavery-victims-and-profiteers/


Scottish Emigration to Colonial America, 1607-1785

David Dobson

Publication Year: 1994

Before 1650, only a few hundred Scots had trickled into the American colonies, but by the early 1770s the number had risen to 10,000 per year. A conservative estimate of the total number of Scots who settled in North America prior to 1785 is around 150,000.

Who were these Scots? What did they do? Where did they settle? What factors motivated their emigration? Dobson's work, based on original research on both sides of the Atlantic, comprehensively identifies the Scottish contribution to the settlement of North America prior to 1785, with particular emphasis on the seventeenth century. -
https://books.google.com/books/about/Scottish_Emigration_to_Colonial_America.html?id=nTt96h1VIggC


The hidden Scots victims of the slave trade

By Elizabeth McQuillan

We tend to be very proud of Scotland’s role in abolishing the slave trade, with parliament passing the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act in 1807, but Scotland also played an integral role in the development of slavery in the 250 years leading up to this.

Standing as testament to the wealth generated by that association, rows of opulent Georgian townhouses that were once owned by the wealthy plantation merchants, tobacco lords and slave-traders can still be seen in Scotland’s major cities. Street names such as Jamaica Street (Glasgow) also nod to our associated heritage.

There were an extraordinarily high proportion of Scottish plantation owners in St Kitts and Jamaica, as well as Virginia in the American colonies. Scottish merchants and investors fuelled the trade in slavery. Scottish slave traders such as Richard Oswald organised large scale ventures to capture, transport and sell slaves, with voyages leaving from all the main UK ports.

Voyages such as these transported 3.4 million (of the 10 million) African slaves to slavery in the colonies in America and the Caribbean. Shocking as this is, these statistics are a reasonably well-known and documented part of our history.

What is perhaps less well known are the large numbers of Scottish people, perhaps as many as 100 000, that were rounded up and transported to the colonies to be sold into slavery.

As early as the 1600’s, ships from Leith and Port Glasgow in Scotland sailed off to the colonies laden with Scottish people that had been rounded up to be sold at the block to line the pocket of their compatriots. The numbers taken as slaves must have been huge as, according to the Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, America and West Indies of 1701, we read of there being an estimated 25,000 slaves in Barbados, of whom 21,700 were white. The fair-skinned slaves were known as Redlegs or Redshanks by the locals because of their sunburned flesh.

It was upon the sweat and tears of these unfortunate people that the British economy was driven forward and thrived. – https://scotlandinmyheartsite.wordpress.com/2016/01/14/the-hidden-scots-victims-of-the-slave-trade/


You see, this is the problem. There are two vastly different narratives being spun. The Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, America and West Indies of 1701, predates the Act of Union by 6 years, and The Battle of Culloden by 45 years, but historians such as Mullen are trying to claim less than 1,000 people were transported, and that some of them may have become plantation owners? If you read what Dobson actually wrote, it’s not what Mullens claims. As a matter of fact, Dobson quotes the Governor of Maryland in 1715 (Chapter 3), warning people to keep an eye on the ‘indentured servants, ‘less they try to escape.’
 
Last edited:

Dearghoul

Well-known member
Joined
Feb 8, 2013
Messages
9,544
Scottish:

Leanabh - Baby, (young) child

Dalta - 1 Foster child, fosterling; 2 stepchild

Pàiste - Child, infant

Aithnichear leanabh air a bheusaibh - A child is known by its manners

Dictionary: Am Faclair Beag

Irish:

Child - Leanbh, páiste

Children - Clann

Family - Teaghlach, family (offspring)

Dictionary: Roberts

Yea, well according to the dictionary I've checked, it appears you are correct, with regard to children, but Homer says Mo Theaghlach..



BBC sources

LINKS AND FURTHER READING

Sir Tom Devine at the University of Edinburgh

Marjory Harper at the University of Aberdeen

Murray Pittock at the University of Glasgow

The Highland Clearances – Wikipedia

The Highland Clearances – Historic UK

Mapping Slavery

‘’The new LBS map interfaces also show the geographic distributions of the beneficiaries of slavery and compensation claims back in Great Britain and Scotland. Although the geolocation of these addresses is not complete – there are currently 3,496 addresses in the LBS database, linked to 3,520 individuals, and 2,485 of these addresses have been located on the British map so far – they confirm that there were significant disparities in the distributions over the country. Scotland had a disproportionately high concentration of beneficiaries, and these were geographically concentrated too – particularly in Edinburgh and Glasgow.’’ https://blog.nls.uk/mapping-slavery/


I'm skeptical of the sources, but in all fairness, he appears to intend to cover the subject of the Clearances predating the Act of Union in 1707 in his forthcoming book: T. M. Devine, The Scottish Clearances: A History of the Dispossessed 1600-1900 (Allen Lane, forthcoming in October 2018), so maybe he's not as biased as the next fella? We’ll have to wait and see. What we know for certain, with the information and facts available, is that the bulk of the Scottish Landlords involved in the slave trade, were concentrated in Edinburgh and Glasgow. The impression I got from the BBC documentary, is that they were conflating one with the other.

Philip D. Curtin is regarded as one of the leading lights on the subject of slavery from Africa to America. His 1969 accounting of enforced trade statistics records that between 1711 and 1810, 180,000 enslaved Africans were transported from the French posts in Senegambia, most being transported from Saint-Louis, Senegal, and James Fort in modern Gambia. Curtin estimated that 200 to 300 slaves were transported per year, and none at all in others. In response to these figures, popularly rejected by much of the Senegalese public, an African historical conference in 1998 claimed that records from the French trading houses of Nantes documented 103,000 slaves being from Gorée on Nantes-owned ships in a single year in the 18th century. The moral of the story being that Professors sometimes get it wrong.

As early as 1547 King Edward signed an English parliamentary decree legislating that vagabonds be branded like cattle with a V mark on their breast, to be sold at auctions for periods of 3-5 years, and in 1665 the Scottish government legislated for the transportation of ‘all able-bodied vagabonds to the Caribbean.’ In Ireland, mercenaries were paid £5 for the head of a Clan Chief, and 25 shillings for any other man, woman or child. John Thurloes State Papers from 1655 has a request for the shipment of '1,000 younge girles' from Ireland. The mind shudders! Hence why the old Gaelic Travelers had an expression which warned of incoming body-snatchers, 'Cean an arso.'

According to the Egerton manuscript, British Museum, the enactment of 1652: ‘’It may be lawful for two or more justices of peace within any county, citty or towne, corporate belonging to the commonwealth to from tyme to tyme by warrant cause to be apprehended, seized on and detained all and every person or persons that shall be found begging and vagrant.. in any towne, parish or place to be conveyed into the Port of London, or unto any other port from where such person or persons may be shipped into a forraign collonie or plantation.’’


Scots & Caribbean Slavery – victims and profiteers

Jacobites – Slaves exported to the West Indies

Note that many are from East & N.E. Scotland and England. Most of the Highlanders appear to be Roman Catholics from Invernes.shire. Most of them would be Catholics and Episcopalians.


List of Jacobites transported to the West Indies in 1747

Dear Mr Mullen,

I read that you are publishing a book on Slavery and wonder if you will be mentioning the Jacobites transported as slaves to the West Indies. They inter-married with the Africans. However, I doubt if you have any knowledge of these facts as Scottish History is not taught in Scottish schools and Scotch Historians only copy Anglo-Centric [expletive removed] from Unionist Historians. I do not think any of the above would own plantations in the West Indies but no doubt many of them would have [expletive removed] the African women working with them. Yours sincerely, [illegible signature].


‘’But should an unrepresentative example be used in an attempt to somehow exonerate much wider involvement elsewhere? Many hundreds (perhaps up to 2,000) of Scots were transported to the West Indies as indentured servants and David Dobson suggested that only 600 prisoners were deported between 1707 and 1763. Some of these might have become plantation owners themselves. Moreover, up to 20,000 Scots economic sojourners travelled voluntarily to the West Indies between 1750 and 1800 in a quest to find fame and fortune.’’ - https://glasgowwestindies.wordpress.com/2014/03/06/scots-caribbean-slavery-victims-and-profiteers/


Scottish Emigration to Colonial America, 1607-1785

David Dobson

Publication Year: 1994

Before 1650, only a few hundred Scots had trickled into the American colonies, but by the early 1770s the number had risen to 10,000 per year. A conservative estimate of the total number of Scots who settled in North America prior to 1785 is around 150,000.

Who were these Scots? What did they do? Where did they settle? What factors motivated their emigration? Dobson's work, based on original research on both sides of the Atlantic, comprehensively identifies the Scottish contribution to the settlement of North America prior to 1785, with particular emphasis on the seventeenth century. -
https://books.google.com/books/about/Scottish_Emigration_to_Colonial_America.html?id=nTt96h1VIggC


The hidden Scots victims of the slave trade

By Elizabeth McQuillan

We tend to be very proud of Scotland’s role in abolishing the slave trade, with parliament passing the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act in 1807, but Scotland also played an integral role in the development of slavery in the 250 years leading up to this.

Standing as testament to the wealth generated by that association, rows of opulent Georgian townhouses that were once owned by the wealthy plantation merchants, tobacco lords and slave-traders can still be seen in Scotland’s major cities. Street names such as Jamaica Street (Glasgow) also nod to our associated heritage.

There were an extraordinarily high proportion of Scottish plantation owners in St Kitts and Jamaica, as well as Virginia in the American colonies. Scottish merchants and investors fuelled the trade in slavery. Scottish slave traders such as Richard Oswald organised large scale ventures to capture, transport and sell slaves, with voyages leaving from all the main UK ports.

Voyages such as these transported 3.4 million (of the 10 million) African slaves to slavery in the colonies in America and the Caribbean. Shocking as this is, these statistics are a reasonably well-known and documented part of our history.

What is perhaps less well known are the large numbers of Scottish people, perhaps as many as 100 000, that were rounded up and transported to the colonies to be sold into slavery.

As early as the 1600’s, ships from Leith and Port Glasgow in Scotland sailed off to the colonies laden with Scottish people that had been rounded up to be sold at the block to line the pocket of their compatriots. The numbers taken as slaves must have been huge as, according to the Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, America and West Indies of 1701, we read of there being an estimated 25,000 slaves in Barbados, of whom 21,700 were white. The fair-skinned slaves were known as Redlegs or Redshanks by the locals because of their sunburned flesh.

It was upon the sweat and tears of these unfortunate people that the British economy was driven forward and thrived. – https://scotlandinmyheartsite.wordpress.com/2016/01/14/the-hidden-scots-victims-of-the-slave-trade/


You see, this is the problem. There are two vastly different narratives being spun. The Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, America and West Indies of 1701, predates the Act of Union by 6 years, and The Battle of Culloden by 45 years, but historians such as Mullen are trying to claim less than 1,000 people were transported, and that some of them may have become plantation owners? If you read what Dobson actually wrote, it’s not what Mullens claims. As a matter of fact, Dobson quotes the Governor of Maryland in 1715 (Chapter 3), warning people to keep an eye on the ‘indentured servants, ‘less they try to escape.’
Why do you conflate indentured servitude with slavery?
 

diaspora-mick

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No idea of the nuances in Scotland, but in Irish mo chlann means my children; at least in my dialect. Despite what you might think you were taught at school.
Indeed in Gaelic the word originally has the meaning of "offspring" and was used to denote a division of a tribe tracing descent from a common ancestor.

The English derivative or loan-word "clan" was used to describe a social unit based around such family structures, i.e. "the clan system".
 

Antóin Mac Comháin

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Why do you conflate indentured servitude with slavery?
What is the difference between indentured servitude and slavery?

NAME: Anthony Johnson

TITLE: Black Indentured Servant; "Free Negro;" Slaveholder

Anthony Johnson was sold as an indentured servant to a merchant of the Virginia Company at Jamestown and arrived in 1621 aboard the James, listed as “Antonio, a Negro.” Originally captured and sold to Arab slave traders, he appears to have come from the Malange highlands of Angola. He was sold as an indentured servant to a white tobacco planter named Edward Bennett.. Sometime after 1635, Antonio and his family secured their freedom from indenture, purchased a plot of land, and Antonio changed his name to Anthony Johnson. In addition to raising tobacco, he began to breed cattle and hogs and build up his herds during the 1640s. The Virginia courts now recognized him as a “free Negro.” In 1651, he earned a 250 acre headright by buying the contracts of five indentured servants (one being his son Richard). The land was located on the Pungoteague River in Northampton County, Virginia. Within a period of 30 years after arriving as an indentured servant, Johnson had acquired a substantial estate. His son John did even better, receiving a patent for 450 acres, and Richard, acquired a 100 acre estate. Collectively, he and his sons owned close to 1,000 acres and held twenty white and black, male and female servants.. In 1653 John Casor, a black indentured servant claimed, on the urgings of a white planter, that he had served out his contract with Johnson. On appeal the court disagreed with Casor and awarded him to Johnson for life. - anthonyjohnson

Johnson's life and the history of his Angola plantation is covered in greater detail in White Cargo: The Forgotten History of Britain's White Slaves in America - https://books.google.ie/books?id=Qqfcgt4TEzoC&pg=PT126&lpg=PT126&dq=anthony+johnson+angola+plantation&source=bl&ots=rdijF7_2ll&sig=azMTLxQ_d6sdppGwqCBdmcMvXwM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjqyrerkPvaAhXjCcAKHSqKAywQ6AEIiQEwDQ
 

Antóin Mac Comháin

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5-6 Minutes - ''The almost untranslatable term from the Gallic Duathchas, which really means the people believe the chiefs had a duty to protect them.''

Indeed in Gaelic the word originally has the meaning of "offspring" and was used to denote a division of a tribe tracing descent from a common ancestor.

The English derivative or loan-word "clan" was used to describe a social unit based around such family structures, i.e. "the clan system".
Bu dùthchasach sin dha - That was hereditary in his family

Dùthchasach - 1 hereditary 2 native, indigenous 3 traditional 4 endemic 5 natural, instinctive

Dùthchasach - Of one's country. 2 Native, natural, indigenous. 3 Hereditary

Dùthchasachd - Hereditary right

Am Faclair Beag - Scottish Gaelic Dictionary

Clan Donald Heritage

'While other clan chiefs were converting to the Saxon feudal lord system, the MacIain chiefs presided in the old Celtic sense even into the 17th century, living among their people more like a father than a feudal lord.' - Clan Donald Heritage

Ireland before the Conquest

James Connolly

'Before the time of the conquest, the Irish people knew nothing of absolute property in land. The land belonged to the entire sept; the chief was little more than managing member of the association. The feudal idea which came in with the conquest was associated with foreign dominion, and has never to this day been recognized by the moral sentiment of the people.'

The chiefs of the Gael were the people embodied;
The chiefs were the blossoms, the people the root.
Their conquerors, the Normans, high-souled and high-blooded,
Grew Irish at last from the scalp to the foot;
And ye, ye are hirelings and satraps, not nobles –
Your slaves they detest you, your masters, they scorn;
The river lives on, but the sun-painted bubbles
Pass quickly, to the rapids incessantly borne


https://www.marxists.org/archive/connolly/1909/hope/erinhope.htm

Professor Harper claims in the BBC documentary that the breakdown of the special type of relationship that existed between the Chiefs and the Tenants in Scotland, weakened the protest movements and the resistance to the Clearances, and that they differed in nature to the Land Leagues in Ireland. However, Pat Nally was a Landlord, and a founding member of the Land Leagues in Mayo, although to what extent that type of relationship and cooperation existed I'm not sure. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pat_Nally

Connolly elaborates further on the subject in Labour in Irish History -https://www.marxists.org/archive/connolly/1910/lih/
 

Telstar 62

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The Irish were such steadfast, loyal subjects of the Royal House
of Stuart, their monarchs and pretenders....:rolleyes:
 

Nebuchadnezzar

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What is the difference between indentured servitude and slavery?

NAME: Anthony Johnson

TITLE: Black Indentured Servant; "Free Negro;" Slaveholder

Anthony Johnson was sold as an indentured servant to a merchant of the Virginia Company at Jamestown and arrived in 1621 aboard the James, listed as “Antonio, a Negro.” Originally captured and sold to Arab slave traders, he appears to have come from the Malange highlands of Angola. He was sold as an indentured servant to a white tobacco planter named Edward Bennett.. Sometime after 1635, Antonio and his family secured their freedom from indenture, purchased a plot of land, and Antonio changed his name to Anthony Johnson. In addition to raising tobacco, he began to breed cattle and hogs and build up his herds during the 1640s. The Virginia courts now recognized him as a “free Negro.” In 1651, he earned a 250 acre headright by buying the contracts of five indentured servants (one being his son Richard). The land was located on the Pungoteague River in Northampton County, Virginia. Within a period of 30 years after arriving as an indentured servant, Johnson had acquired a substantial estate. His son John did even better, receiving a patent for 450 acres, and Richard, acquired a 100 acre estate. Collectively, he and his sons owned close to 1,000 acres and held twenty white and black, male and female servants.. In 1653 John Casor, a black indentured servant claimed, on the urgings of a white planter, that he had served out his contract with Johnson. On appeal the court disagreed with Casor and awarded him to Johnson for life. - anthonyjohnson

Johnson's life and the history of his Angola plantation is covered in greater detail in White Cargo: The Forgotten History of Britain's White Slaves in America - https://books.google.ie/books?id=Qqfcgt4TEzoC&pg=PT126&lpg=PT126&dq=anthony+johnson+angola+plantation&source=bl&ots=rdijF7_2ll&sig=azMTLxQ_d6sdppGwqCBdmcMvXwM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjqyrerkPvaAhXjCcAKHSqKAywQ6AEIiQEwDQ
There is a big difference.

An indentured servant and his/her employer were both subject to a contract, a contract of limited duration. The servant had protection under the law if that contract was broken by the employer. The servant was considered a person governed and protected by law. Any children of an indentured servant were free and not subject to any restriction by way of their parents contract.

An African slave as an item of private property had no rights. The children of these slaves were of course also slaves.
 

diaspora-mick

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There is a big difference.

An indentured servant and his/her employer were both subject to a contract, a contract of limited duration. The servant had protection under the law if that contract was broken by the employer. The servant was considered a person governed and protected by law. Any children of an indentured servant were free and not subject to any restriction by way of their parents contract.

An African slave as an item of private property had no rights. The children of these slaves were of course also slaves.
On paper perhaps ...

But do you really expect us to believe that this "hypothetical" legal protection was effective?
 
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Nebuchadnezzar

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On paper perhaps ...

But do you really expect us to believe that this "hypothetical" legal protection was effective?
It was not hypothetical. There are a number of instances of indentured servants successfully taking legal action against their masters.
 

diaspora-mick

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It was not hypothetical. There are a number of instances of indentured servants successfully taking legal action against their masters.
"A number of instances" ... indeed ... care to enlighten us ?

Did they have access to free legal aid as well ?
 

Antóin Mac Comháin

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There is a big difference.

An indentured servant and his/her employer were both subject to a contract, a contract of limited duration. The servant had protection under the law if that contract was broken by the employer. The servant was considered a person governed and protected by law. Any children of an indentured servant were free and not subject to any restriction by way of their parents contract.

An African slave as an item of private property had no rights. The children of these slaves were of course also slaves.
In 1653 John Casor, a black indentured servant claimed, on the urgings of a white planter, that he had served out his contract with Johnson. On appeal the court disagreed with Casor and awarded him to Johnson for life. - anthonyjohnson
Casor v Johnson in 1653 was one of the first cases where slavery was defined as a lifetime of servitude.

‘’Not only in Virginia but also in New England and New York, the first blacks were integrated into a forced labor system that had little or nothing to do with skin color. That came later. But in the interim, a fateful 40-year period of primary importance in the history of America, Black men and women worked side by side with the first generation of Whites, cultivating tobacco, clearing the land, and building roads and houses.’ – Lerone Bennett Jr, African-American writer

''The Court, considering the cruel and malignant spirit that has from time to time been manifest in the Irish nation against the English nation, do hereby declare their prohibition of bringing any Irish, men, women, or children, into this jurisdiction, on the penalty of £50 sterling to each inhabitant who shall buy of the merchant, shipmaster, or other agent any such person or persons so transported by them.'' - General Court of Massachusetts, 1654

In 1658, the authorities decided that English bonded servants in the American colonies should have their minimum bond period extended from four to five years. It was already five years for the Irish, and so to keep the difference intact, the length of servitude for the Irish was extended to six years.

Lifetime black slaves were becoming the norm and all the colonies passed laws recognizing slavery in principle. Massachusetts led the way in 1641, followed by Connecticut, in 1650, Virginia in 1661, Maryland in 1663 and New York and New Jersey in 1664.

In 1671, another measure was introduced making all 'non-Christian servants', meaning Africans, slaves for life. Virginia enacted legislation making slavery hereditary:

''Whereas some doubts have arisen whether children got by any Englishman upon a negro woman shall be slave or free. Be it therefore enacted and declared by this present grand Assembly, that all children borne in this country shall be held, bond or free only according to the condition of the mother.''
The Act of Proscription

Para 21 and for the second, or any subsequent offence, being thereof lawfully convicted before the court of justiciary, or in any of the circuit courts, shall be adjudged to be transported, and accordingly shall be transported to some of his Majesty's plantations in America for life; and in case any person adjudged to be so transported shall return into, or be found in Great Briton, then every such person shall suffer imprisonment for life. - www.tartansauthority.com › Tartan › The Growth of Tartan

list of prisoners transported on the 'veteran' - Jacobite Rebellion of 1745

Anne Cameron from Lochaber, Occupation: Spinner & Knitter
Regiment: Regiment not known Rank: Regimental Woman
Prisoner No.: 331 Prisoner at: Carlisle, Lancaster Castle
Aged 28 years, little woman. Captured at Carlisle on 30 December 1745. Imprisoned ‘And her female child aged 2
months’ at Carlisle and Lancaster Castle.
An African slave as an item of private property had no rights. The children of these slaves were of course also slaves.
Granted Anne Cameron and her child were subject to the Barbados Slave Code of 1661, a law passed by the colonial English legislature to provide a legal basis for slavery in the Caribbean island of Barbados, and not to the laws of Massachusetts, 1641, Connecticut, 1650, Maryland, 1663, New York and New Jersey, 1664, or Virginia 1661 & 1671, the punishment for breaching the Act of Proscription drawn up in 1745, 74 years after the ruling in Virginia, which ruled that ‘’all children borne in this country shall be held, bond or free only according to the condition of the mother'', was a life imprisonment.

The Barbados Slave Code of 1661 marked the beginning of the legal codification of slavery. The Barbados Assembly reenacted the slave code, with minor modifications, in 1676, 1682, and 1688. The Barbados Slave Code also served as the basis for the slave codes adopted in several other British colonies, including Jamaica (1664), South Carolina (1696), and Antigua (1702).

The Barbados Slave Code, named An Act for Better Ordering and Governing of Negroes, (1661) declared,

"If any Negro or slave whatsoever shall offer any violence to any Christian by striking or the like, such Negro or slave shall for his or her first offence be severely whipped by the Constable.

For his second offence of that nature he shall be severely whipped, his nose slit, and be burned in some part of his face with a hot iron. And being brutish slaves, deserve not, for the baseness of their condition, to be tried by the legal trial of twelve men of their peers, as the subjects of England are.

And it is further enacted and ordained that if any Negro or other slave under punishment by his master unfortunately shall suffer in life or member, which seldom happens, no person whatsoever shall be liable to any fine therefore."
 


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